Democracy and rights
Libya has been in a state of war since 2011
with a difficult-to-understand number of actors
involved. Many of them are abusing people. The UN is
trying to drive a democratic process, but some stable
elected institutions have not emerged since the fall of
dictator Muammar Gaddafi. The judiciary is out of play.
Widespread lawlessness also creates difficult
working conditions for mass media.
Elections for a new National Council were held
following the fall of Gaddafi and Ali Zaydan, then prime
minister, sought to appoint a new government. There were
several ministers from the Gaddict dictatorship. There
were protests directly and Libya's basic problems were
confirmed: Landers are moving in different directions
and have their own militias, generally based in
different clans. How do you get to a functioning state,
where someone must be entrusted with the responsibility
of, for example, the police? All groups also want to
control the oil sources and the Riksbank.
Offers a comprehensive list of airports in Libya, including international airports with city located, size and abbreviation, as well as the biggest airlines.
A provisional electoral system and electoral
authority were established in 2011. A draft constitution
was adopted in 2017 by a constitutional assembly elected
in 2014 - in an election that did not meet democratic
basic requirements. Political parties are not lacking,
but there are no nationwide functions that can carry out
a referendum on the constitution or reliable elections.
Thus, transitional rules are not replaced by a permanent
democratic system, and the work of the provisional
bodies is paralyzed by fragmentation. Terrorist groups
such as IS have also been able to take advantage of the
disorder that prevails. They not only attack opponents,
but also the attempts to get to elections and updated
laws (see Calendar). All in all, it becomes difficult
and dangerous also for those who want to pursue
political demands with peaceful methods, or allow
themselves to be elected. Civilian mayors have been
replaced by military commanders in areas controlled by
General Khalifa Haftar.
Migrants who are in large numbers in Libya - most of
them coming from countries further south in Africa -
have been stuck in unbearable situations. EU countries
do not want to receive them and in Libya they are
lawless. Many are camped or monitored by smugglers and
militiamen, often subject to crime. Both forced labor
and slave auctions have been reported (see Calendar).
In a situation where no reliable systems intervene
against, among other things, smuggling and black trade
with oil, both government institutions and private
industries are subject to corruption. In Transparency
International's ranking for 2018, Libya occupies an
unprecedented place 168 out of 180 countries, see list
Freedom of expression and media
Previously, the entire media sector was controlled by
the state or by dictator Muammar Gaddafi's family. The
news flow was heavily politicized and censored. When the
regime fell in 2011, the old media collapsed.
An explosive development with new media followed, but
most were small and had little scope. The newly won
freedom was also soon overplayed in the chaotic state
that ensued. The media landscape has become polarized,
politicized and violent.
In 2014, the National Congress passed a law that
allowed satellite TV channels criticizing the government
or the "destabilized country" to have their broadcasting
rights revoked. Furthermore, a law was passed which
meant that public criticism of the 2011 Gaddafi uprising
could result in 15 years in prison. The lawmakers also
used advocacy laws from the Gaddafi era to convict
journalists of slander.
The disintegration that continued after 2014 has not
made the situation better. Islamist groups that took
control of Tripoli also took over state television. The
government that was in Tobruk shut down media considered
Islamist. The proliferation of the detention forces
across the country and the offensive against Tripoli has
led to mass media falling between two fires.
Few magazines come out. Violence and threats from
militia groups are very common, even kidnappings, and
many journalists have fled the country. Reporters
Without Borders, which rank the freedom of the press in
the world, placed Libya in 164 of 180 countries in 2020,
see list here.
Judicial system and legal security
Today, there are no authorities that can adequately
maintain security. Militias act without risk of
reprisals. Contending parties have been guilty of
arbitrary arrests, torture, rape, murder, disappearance
and summary executions. Hundreds of thousands of people
have been driven from their homes. According to the UN,
probably all major players have been guilty of war
crimes. The situation has deteriorated in the
disintegration after 2014.
The International Criminal Court (ICC) in The Hague
has been investigating abuses in Libya since 2011 and
has issued arrest warrants for several people. Among
those the ICC wants to examine are Gaddafi's son Sayf
al-Islam, who in 2017 was released from a militia-run
prison in Zintan, after six years. The militia invoked
an amnesty decision by the rulers of eastern Libya,
while the UN-backed government in Tripoli in the west
condemned the decision. In a court in the west,
Gaddafisonen is sentenced to death by arching.
A commander of the Haftar forces in the east, a
person suspected of summary executions by the ICC,
appealed to authorities in eastern Libya in early 2018,
but was subsequently released by his supporters in
support of him. In connection with Haftar's offensive
against Tripoli, which began in the spring of 2019,
Prime Minister Fayez al-Sarraj has stated that evidence
of new attacks on civilians will be handed over to the