Democracy and rights
Ghana is considered one of Africa's strongest
democracies. Since the country's return to civilian rule
in 1992, respect for human rights has been strengthened.
A serious problem is corruption; In 2019, Ghana fell 39
rankings in Transparency International's corruption
Elections are held regularly at the presidential
post, Parliament and local parishes. The elections are
generally judged to be free and fair. The results of the
2016 presidential election were accepted by all major
Offers a comprehensive list of airports in Ghana, including international airports with city located, size and abbreviation, as well as the biggest airlines.
The Constitution provides that free party formation
prevails, which is generally respected. However, in
connection with the 2016 elections, the fee was raised
significantly for parties that wanted to nominate
candidates, which critics felt would hit hard for
smaller parties. Parties may not be religious,
geographically or ethnically based.
No special permits are required to hold
demonstrations and organizations are allowed to operate
Women are under-represented in politics. Of the 275
members elected in parliament in 2016, only 37 were
The situation for LGBTQ people is difficult because
homosexuality is illegal in Ghana (see also Social
Corruption permeates every part of society, not least
the police force and the judiciary. Corruption scandals
within the authorities are often revealed by
journalists. In 2019, Transparency International moved
Ghana down 39 investments, from 41 to 80 out of 180
countries in the organization's index of corruption in
the world (see the full list here). Prior to that, the
situation had improved with six investments since 2015.
Freedom of expression and media
Freedom of the press and opinion prevails and the
debate climate is open. However, in recent years, the
threats and violence against journalists have increased.
In 2018, a group of journalists were forced to hide
after being publicly threatened by a politician they
were investigating. The politician was not prosecuted
for the threat and one of the journalists was shot dead
in the open street a month later.
In Reporters Without Borders Press Freedom Index for
2020, Ghana is ranked 30th among 180 countries, which
means a fall of seven investments in two years. As a
result, the country has lost its former top position
among the African countries. Ghana is now third best in
Africa, after Namibia (23) and Cape Verde (25).
Judicial system and legal security
The courts are largely independent of political power
and the rule of law is regarded as relatively good.
However, there is corruption in the judiciary and
special attention aroused a bout in the judiciary in
2015, which resulted in several judges resigning (see
Corruption within the police force is a particular
problem. In a survey conducted by a non-profit
organization in 2016, 61 percent of those surveyed
stated that they had once paid a bribe to the police.
There are reports of arbitrary arrests and
unnecessary violence on the part of the police. The
conditions in the country's prisons are described as
Ghana imposes the death penalty. A large number of
convicted prisoners are in the country's prisons.
However, no prisoner has been executed for at least the
last ten years according to Amnesty International.
NPP appeals for election results
Shortly before the turn of the year, NPP appealed the election result to the
Supreme Court. The party claims to have evidence that there were more voters
than registered voters in their places and that people without approved voting
cards were allowed to participate.
The NDC gets its own majority
Ahead of the parliamentary election, which is being conducted simultaneously
with the presidential election, the number of seats in the chamber is increased
from 230 to 275. The NDC government party wins its own majority with 148 seats
against 123 for opposition NPP. One mandate goes to the small party PNC and 3
mandates are obtained by independent candidates.
Technical problems in the election process
Independent observers from the Commonwealth , Ecowas and a Ghanaian
organization believe that the election was conducted correctly, but technical
problems with new voting cards (with digitally inserted fingerprints) mean that
the election process is extended by one day. The NPP protests against the
election result and claims that the Election Commission is in mascot with the
NDC, which "systematically stole" votes from Akufo-Addo.
Mahama wins the presidential election
Mahama wins the presidential election in the first round - albeit by a very
small margin. Mahama gets 50.7 percent of the vote compared to 47.7 percent for
Akufo-Addo. According to the Election Commission, turnout is 78 percent.
Oil revenues become a matter of choice
In the electoral movement, the factual differences between the NDC's Mahama
and the NPP's Akufo-Addo are small. However, there are different views on how to
use the growing oil revenues; while Mahama wants to invest in infrastructure,
Akufo-Addo wants to prioritize education and propose free high school studies.
Leading politicians' salaries are shocked
Parliament raises the salaries of leading politicians. The president's salary
is increased from SEK 28,000 per month to SEK 42,000 tax-free. Government
ministers and MPs receive a salary premium of more than 50 percent. A
ministerial salary is thus about ten times greater than a teacher's salary.
Parliament's resolutions receive criticism from anti-corruption organizations.
Not least is anger provoked by the decision being made without first having been
preceded by public debate.
Rawlings miss application time
Nana Konadu Rawlings is rejected as presidential candidate for her newly
formed National Democratic Party (NDP) by the Election Commission, which states
that she did not submit a correct application on time.
Mahama vs. Akufo-Addo
The NDC government unanimously appoints President-elect Mahama as its
presidential candidate in the December 2012 election. Mahama also gets the
Rawlings faction's votes. His opponent from the NPP will be Nana Akufo-Addo, who
lost the 2008 election by barely a margin.
Land grief after Mill's passing
The recently deceased President John Atta Mills is buried. Three days of
country grief is announced.
President Mills dies
President Mills dies at a military hospital in Accra after a brief illness.
On the same day, Vice President John Dramani Mahama resigns Presidential Office
in accordance with the Constitution and becomes Acting Head of State. Central
Bank Governor Kwesi Amissah-Arthur is appointed new Vice President.
Unrest in eastern Ghana
Thousands of people flee their homes away from violent unrest in eastern
Ghana. The outbreak of violence was triggered when a Muslim minister's grave was