Democracy and rights
Chad has since ruled a military coup in 1990
by President Idriss Déby and his immediate circle. All
opposition is silenced and media freedom is
circumvented. Political rulers often intervene in the
work of the courts.
According to the constitution, Chad is supposed to be
a democracy with multi-party systems, but that is not
the case. President Déby keeps a firm grip on power and
the elections held are not free and fair. Free party
formation applies, but regime critics run the risk of
bad luck. Of the approximately 130 parties registered in
the country, the vast majority are associated with the
president and his party the Patriotic Rescue Movement
Offers a comprehensive list of airports in Chad, including international airports with city located, size and abbreviation, as well as the biggest airlines.
Opponents are regularly imprisoned and harassed by
police and security forces. Regime-critical meetings and
demonstrations are usually prohibited. On several
occasions, arrested protesters have been tortured by the
police and protesters have been shot dead.
In 2018, a series of constitutional amendments were
adopted that further strengthened the president's power.
Among other things, the Prime Minister's post and the
Vice President were abolished. The president also
formally gained influence over the appointment of
judges, generals and senior executives for state-owned
companies (see Current Policy).
Both government forces and the armed groups operating
in Chad are guilty of serious abuses against the
civilian population. The Islamist movement Boko Haram
kidnaps and kills civilians. The security forces are
engaged in arbitrary arrests in the search for
terrorists. Few perpetrators are held accountable and
the government is accused of not having control over the
Civil society is poorly developed. People who engage
in issues that are sensitive to the regime, such as
corruption and abuse of power, are often exposed to
threats and harassment.
Most of the political elite belong to the same ethnic
group as the president, zaghawa. The rest of the
country's approximately 200 people groups have little
influence in society and the Christian minority in the
south is marginalized.
Although some efforts have been made to get more
women into political positions, their rights are poorly
protected in both law and everyday life (see Social
Corruption is widespread at all levels of society. In
2019, Chad ranked 162 out of 180 countries in the
Transparency International Index of Corruption in the
World (see full list here). It was three investments
better than the year before.
Freedom of expression and media
Officially there is freedom of the press and opinion
in Chad, but not in practice. Defamation and anti-terror
laws are used to prevent media from criticizing the
authorities. It happens that journalists are arrested by
the police, although they are usually released fairly
The authorities' harassment leads many journalists to
apply self-censorship. Reporters Without Borders placed
Chad in 123 of 180 countries in its index of freedom of
the press in the world by 2020 (see the full list here).
This is roughly the same location as the country has had
over the last four years.
Judicial system and legal security
The judiciary is formally independent, but the
government often interferes with the work of the courts.
The judicial institutions are underfunded and corruption
within the justice system is common. The constitutional
amendments in 2018 gave the president formal influence
over the appointment of judges.
In rural areas, state courts are often missing.
There, disputes are settled by local leaders, such as
the village chief. The ruling is based on customary law.
In the north, people are also judged by Islamic Sharia
The conditions in Chad's prisons are described as
very bad. According to Amnesty International, a prison
sentence can in many cases equate to a death penalty
when prisoners have been choked to death in overcrowded
cells or shot dead by police. Infectious diseases spread
easily in the narrow cells where the sanitary conditions
The death penalty has been abolished. In April 2020,
the death penalty for terrorist offenses was abolished.
For other crimes, the death penalty was abolished in
2016, but the government then made an exception for
terrorist-related crimes. The most recent execution was
executed in August 2015 when ten suspected members of
Boko Haram from Nigeria were arched.